Posts filed under ‘Politics’

End of the world as we know it

Well, I have to admit I’m in a bit of a dark, brooding mood right now. The ongoing financial hissy fit, emerging social problems and the horror of the terrorist attack in Mumbai have all converged to leave me a bit desperate about the future. Then along came a report I should have left alone!

I pity Prez-elect Obama. He will be inheriting, well…a mess. If he had taken office four years ago, the future might have looked rosier. Every four years, the National Intelligence Council releases a report called the Global Trends Review. The 2004 report confidently stated that the world would witness continued US dominance. But the latest report is full of doom and gloom and a less prominent US in world affairs.

I’m sure that Obama has been reading Global Trends 2025 with his head in his hands. The report is subtitled A Transformed World and herein lies the doom and gloom bit. What a dramatic and sobering shift in four short years.  Here are some tidbits:

  • new kids on the block – Brazil, Russia, India and China – are emerging economies that will grow at America’s expense. The traditional Western alliances will weaken and more countries may be attracted to China’s alternative development model.
  • and here’s something we’re already seeing: “The State’s role in the economy may be gaining more appeal throughout the world”.
  • the power of non-state actors like religious groups, criminal networks, tribes and businesses will increase.
  • the unprecedented shift in relative wealth and economic power from West to East now under way will continue.
  • the US will be less dominant.
  • shortages of fuel, food and water will spark conflicts.
  • growth of the Muslim population in Europe to 20-30 million with accompanying potential sources of conflict.
  • potential emergence of a global pandemic – a virulent human respiratory illness – with tension and conflict as nations struggle to control the movement of populations across borders (I really think this is a very high probability).
  • Warfare in 2025 will be characterised by several strategic trends – the increasing importance of information; the adoption of irregular warfare tactics; the rise of non-military tactics such as cyber, economic and information-based forms of conflict.

The report has a number of very interesting global fictionalised scenarios such as The World Without The West and BRIC’s bust up. I suggest you get a strong cup of coffee (or a bottle of vodka), curl up and read the report. I found it fascinating albeit it left me in a pretty dark mood!


November 29, 2008 at 2:00 am 1 comment

End of the world as we know it?

I’ve been seeing a lot of “this is the death of capitalism” dire warnings as a result of the global financial hissy fit. I’m not sure this is a useful statement frankly. Perhaps it’s more the death of Thatcherite-Reaganite neo-liberalism. What we might be seeing is the birth of a new world order. So I found this article in the Guardian extremely interesting. Sales of Das Kapital are soaring as people mutter that the Marxian analysis of Capitalism was right after all. Apparently, Marx is hot in eastern Germany and he’s hit the bestseller lists again. I must admit to flicking through my copy over the last few weeks.

43% of former East Germans say they want socialism rather than capitalism. Let’s face it: they’ve had a rough trot since the Berlin Wall crumbled what with high unemployment and reunification issues. Stories are being gleaned with one former East Berliner saying:

“We read about the ‘horrors of capitalism’ in school. They really got that right. Karl Marx was spot on. I had a pretty good life before the Wall fell. No one worried about money because money didn’t really matter. You had a job even if you didn’t want one. The communist idea wasn’t all that bad.”

Even Nicolas Sarkozy has been snapped leafing through the writings of Marx. So are we heading towards new socialism? The article makes the very salient point that it is the free-market model that is snuffing it, not capitalism itself. So we don’t need to call each other Comrade just yet. What we’ve seen is the flagrant abuse of capitalism by greedy bankers, CEOs and..let’s be honest…we have all been complicit in the whole mess – wanting the McMansion, The Brands, bigger and better salaries. Unbridled capitalism has led to shockers like this – AIG‘s top dogs off on a partridge hunt at an English country Manor, spending $US86,000 at the same time the US Feds were bailing AIG out with taxpayer money and whilst Mom and Dad citizen were suffering through the humiliation of homes being repossessed. They wore tweed jackets, shot at poor defenseless birds and scoffed the finest of wines. One of AIG’s top executives had the gall to say: “The recession will go on until about 2011 – but the shooting was great today and we are relaxing fine”. Pity Dick Cheney wasn’t on this hunt. He might have missed his aim and shot at this idiot executive.

What we are seeing (I hope) is an end to the unethical, greed is good, morally repugnant, “hands off, don’t regulate us” free-market capitalism. To be replaced by what? Since the implosion of Communism and the erosion of the welfare-state, what model remains standing on the Left? People still believe in the natural right to own property and the right to trade property, ergo Capitalism will not die. Capitalism has been tarnished by the 25 years or so of Thatcherite-Reaganite neo-liberalism (not to mention the stupidity of George W). It’s been abused by shadowy bankers, arrogance and hubris. It’s been battered by the house of cards that were subprime mortgages. But it will remain standing.

The challenge will be for capitalism to attain a human face. To cater for the less-wealthy in society, provide education, housing and a working health system.

November 6, 2008 at 2:00 am Leave a comment

Hasta la vista Dubya!

Eight long years I’ve waited for this day! Finally, the winds of change will sweep through the mirky, shadowy corridors of the White House and Dubya will waft off into the sunset – going down in history as the worst of all US Presidents and leaving in his wake an America that is less respected. What will today bring? Prez Obama or Prez McCain? Will either represent true change? Will either willingly give up some of the powers that Dubya has usurped for himself?

Whoever is elected today has enormous powers to shape the post-meltdown world. I am hoping that there aren’t any nasty surprises coming our way. Did you read the article by Robert F. Kennedy Jr and Greg Palast in Rolling Stone about the GOP’s campaign to deter new voters and vanish Democratic voters off voting lists?

On Super Tuesday (February 5) one in nine Democrats who went to cast their ballots in New Mexico found…poof..their names had vanished off the voting roll (and this included the supervisor of elections in Las Vegas – imagine his surprise!). In Las Vegas, nearly 20% of the county’s Democratic voters were missing off the voting list. Republican “operatives” are using new Federal legislation to disenfranchise Democrats. I guess we’ll find out very soon whether this disreputable nationwide campaign is enough to knock out Obama’s chances of being Prez.

With the United States being a superpower embroiled in a not-so-elegant decline, this Prez election is perhaps the most important in US history. Bogged down in the Iraq quagmire; arrogantly ignoring international law and order; engaging in torture; turning their backs on global warming – the next US Prez will have a staggering To Do list:

  • Commander-in-Chief of the largest war-time force deployed since the Vietnam War – what to do about the Iraq War?
  • an incredibly stuffed economy, teetering on the edge of the abyss
  • he’ll need to formulate a new Regulatory structure that reigns in the free-market model
  • regaining the respect of the world
  • doing something about climate change

A brave man who takes on this job!

Image credits: Reuters and CNN.

November 4, 2008 at 2:00 am 1 comment

Posse Comitatus

If you’re an avid reader of the ThinkingShift blog, you would know what Posse Comitatus means. And you might even be concerned that an active-duty military unit is within the borders of the United States. If you have no clue about what I’m talking about, then go here and here.

I’ve been surprised (or maybe not!) by the lack of coverage over the battering of Posse Comitatus and I’ve been waiting to see what the American Civil Liberties Union (great watchdog that they are!) would do about it. Well, they’ve come out slugging by filing a request under the US Freedom of Information Act with the Departments of Defense, Justice, and Homeland Security. It demands an explanation for the decision to deploy a permanent active-duty unit within the borders of the United States. Let’s recall, this is an active-duty unit not a bunch of retired generals relaxing during a bit of R&R. I have been amazed, speechless, aghast (add any other term you like) over the fact that America effectively has a standing army that potentially disturbs the balance of powers because what we have here is the military with an increasing role in domestic surveillance.

You need to read my previous two posts to gain a full understanding of the seriousness of this situation. But the ACLU is asking for some serious stuff:

  • disclosure of any records relating to the decision to deploy the unit
  • any documents relating to the purpose of the unit eg functions, surveillance activities, duties and the unit’s relationship to existing civilian agencies or the National Guard

In my previous posts, I asked where the unit was actually located. Now we know: Fort Stewart, Georgia. Fort Stewart is the home of the US Army 3rd Infantry Division’s 1st Brigade Combat Team, which is the unit now deployed within US borders.  The unit is called the Chemical, Biological, Radiological/Nuclear, and Explosive (CBRNE) Consequence Management Response Force or CCMRF (pronounced, strangely enough, “sea-smurf”) – sinister sounding if you ask me.

So I had a look at Fort Stewart’s website to see what I could find out. The latest issue of their newsletter, Frontline, was full of news about valour being recognised; the career counsellor of the week; a seafood fest; an article on General Patton; Halloween safety tips (what the?); Marine Television TV Guide (mmm….must check that out to see if they’re showing my favourite show, Inspector Rex!). But I didn’t find news that would inform the public about what the permanent unit’s duties are. But in their September 11 issue, I found this:

“The 1st Brigade Combat Team (of the 3rd Infantry) is currently conducting a mission readiness exercise for its new homeland mission. The Raider Brigade was selected to be part of a joint service task force responsible for providing support to the designated lead federal agency in the event of a Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, High-yield Consequence Management Response Force, or CCMRF. Representatives from U.S. Northern Command at Peterson Air Force Base, Colo.; U.S. Army North at Fort Sam Houston, Texas; and Joint Task Force Civil Support at Fort Monroe, Va., will be present for the exercise at Evans Army Airfield until Sept. 18, the first time these agencies will have an active-duty brigade committed to the CCMRF team as its primary mission. The subordinate battalions are scheduled to conduct individual preparatory training for the mission during the exercise and throughout the month of September as well”.

Clearly, Prez Bush is expecting some serious stuff happening in the US soon – civil unrest or catastrophes that may involve nuclear weapons. The CCMRF is a fully trained and experienced unit that has spent the last 35 months in Iraq patrolling in “full battle rattle” (as the Army Times put it). They are well used to confronting an enemy in a theatre of war. They weren’t hanging around painting their nails! The situation in Iraq is pretty overstretched so why bring back home a combat unit a little over one month before the Prez elections (they were deployed on October 1st). Should Obama lose the unloseable election, are authorities concerned about civil unrest from the Afro-American community? The CCMRF’s brief is to provide support to civilian authorities. What are the Americans not being told here? Is this the militarisation of civil agencies? So many questions need to be asked.

I nosed around some more and found this bit in the Air Force Times back in June 2008: not one but three CCMRF’s were slated to return to the US, each unit having 4,500 troops. My cunning maths ability tells me this would be 13,500 troops within US borders. CCMRF 1 is clearly the unit deployed on October 1. CCMRF 2 is expected to be fully operational by the start of fiscal 2010, with CCMRF 3 ready by the start of fiscal 2011, according to the article. So…..what authorities are describing as an innocent bunch of military personnel ready to come to US citizens’ aid in the event of a catastrophe is really a purposely staged standing army? The National Guard provides help to citizens after man-made or natural disasters, so why bring in the sea-smurfs?

I found the CCMRF Consequence Management Handbook, an annexure of which is “Standing Rules for the use of Force”. There is a very scary image on page 129 entitled Continuum of Force Levels that shows what level of force the sea-smurfs can use. There are 5 broad categories and they don’t require movement from one level to the next in sequential order. So the 5th level is Lethal Combative and the CCMRF appropriate response would be Cause Death/Serious Injury.  Download the pdf version of the Handbook and check it out. I’m wondering why this continuum is necessary – unless of course US authorities are expecting something serious in the near future like civil unrest due to the financial meltdown or Obama losing the Prez elections.

I’m smelling a huge rat here. Critics of this suss mission point to a General Accounting Office study in 2003, which found that domestic security missions put a strain on a military stretched thin by the Iraq war and that a unit’s readiness for combat is reduced if the members have to take time out to respond to an emergency at home. Gene Healy, a vice president of the conservative think-tank Cato Institute, quipped that the US military “is not a Swiss Army knife,” ready to fight the Taliban one week, respond to a hurricane the next and put down a major political protest the third week.

Back to the ACLU: here’s hoping that can surface what’s really going on. As they say: “We have a right to know why the government has made the unprecedented decision to implement the CCMRF program, and the true threat it poses to our civil liberties”.

October 28, 2008 at 2:00 am 3 comments

Wake up America!

I blogged the other day about the death of Posse Comitatus and how the US Army 3rd Infantry Division’s 1st Brigade Combat Team returned to the US and as of October 1st is effectively a standing army within US borders. We’re talking around 4,000 troops. If you missed this post, I urge you to read it.

I’ve been investigating further. Mainly, because I simply cannot believe the audacity of Bush and his gang. The US Prez can now command an army. Something Posse Comitatus was designed to stop happening. Now, a Vietnam veteran, a retired US Air Force Colonel no less is on record as saying that Bush should be impeached for striking down Posse Comitatus.

I have not been able to find out where exactly the brigade has been deployed within the US. But wherever they are, their weaponry includes both lethal and non-lethal weapons and they will have access to tanks. The brigade has been named the chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear or high-yield explosive Consequence Management Response Force. The acronym, CCMRF, pronounced “sea-smurf”, is now used for this brigade, which spent 35 of the last 60 months in Iraq in a combat zone. I’ve also heard them referred to as The Raiders. Apparently, they have been very good at suppressing resistance in the city of Ramadi, Iraq.

Now, if this bunch of troops has been brought back to the US (as the official mantra says) for some R&R and be part of an on-call Federal response to natural disasters or emergencies, why the need for heavy artillery? This is not a bunch of boy scouts being deployed – it’s a unit experienced in fierce combat and trained to kill. Unless of course you are expecting a mass civilian meltdown to accompany the financial meltdown. If the economic crisis becomes grave, then people may not be able to get money out of an ATM. Civil unrest ensues and an army is needed to subdue the populace.

The really scary bit is that the Sea Smurfs are not answerable to Congress. They are at Bush’s command. The Vietnam veteran calling for Bush’s impeachment painted this scenario:

  • if Bush commanded the brigade to arrest Congress, they would have to obey
  • the brigade could arrest any voters (because the Act that killed off Posse Comitatus, HR 5122, loosely defines “insurgents” and “insurrection”. So a bunch of voters putting up a mild protest could be arrested and hauled off)
  • if Bush directs the brigade to kill US citizens, they would have to obey (and if they refused, they would be treated as deserters and face up to 5 years’ imprisonment)

Did I fail Politics at University? Since when does “democracy” equate with having troops in the streets armed with lethal and non-lethal weapons and at the disposal of a President? Have the Americans lost what was once so dear to them – their fear and loathing of standing armies? British troops in colonial America was the very thing they stood up against.

There are some serious questions that need to be asked:

  • under what circumstances exactly could the Sea Smurfs be ordered to act against US citizens?
  • what would constitute unruliness, insurgency, unrest? Would a bunch of peaceful protesters hanging around a building with a few pathetic placards and chanting a protest slogan be defined as “insurgents”?
  • what are the rules of engagement?
  • how would a “public emergency” be defined exactly?
  • what weaponry will the Sea Smurfs have at their command? How will the weaponry be used?
  • why has the US Army been given what is (let’s be honest here) law enforcement duties?
  • and if it came to the crunch, would US troops REALLY act against their own citizens?

Wake up Americans! This is surely not a path you wish to go down – a military state replacing a democracy.  Am I the only one worrying about this? I’ve only seen a few other bloggers talk about this but that’s about it.

Image credit. Inteldaily

October 14, 2008 at 2:00 am 4 comments

Be afraid America!

Looks like Bush and his gang are up to their old tricks again. But this is potentially more worrying than any invasion of privacy if you ask me. The US Army is returning to the Homeland from Iraq. Alas, not all the troops just the 3rd Infantry Division’s 1st Brigade Combat Team (BCT), which has spent 35 months in Iraq patrolling here, there and everywhere.

They are not returning home for some R&R. Nope. They are returning home to….wait for it…..carry out homeland patrols in the US. What the? Yep. From October 1, for 12 months, the BCT will be under the day-to-day command of US Army North. So what I hear you say?

Well, let’s dig deeper. According to the Army Times:

“..this new mission marks the first time an active unit has been given a dedicated assignment to NorthCom, a joint command established in 2002 to provide command and control for federal homeland defense efforts and coordinate defense support of civil authorities.”

Note that last bit “coordinate defense support of civil authorities”. The article goes on:

“….they’ll learn new skills, use some of the ones they acquired in the war zone and more than likely will not be shot at while doing any of it. They may be called upon to help with civil unrest and crowd control or to deal with potentially horrific scenarios such as massive poisoning and chaos in response to a chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear or high-yield explosive, or CBRNE, attack.”

Great to see they’ll be learning new skills but what civil unrest and crowd control are they expecting to be handling??? Do Bush and his croneys know something we don’t (although suspect) – that the meltdown of the financial system will plunge the US into Depression and the country will face riots and civil tension?

Let’s get something straight – we are talking about a standing Army inside US borders. Now obviously Bush is once again giving the finger to the Rule of Law or he’s suffering amnesia. The US has a piece of legislation called The Posse Comitatus Act. This Act was passed after the American Civil War and expressly prohibits the deployment of the US military within US borders. There are exceptions to this – the Coast Guard is exempted and military personnel can be deployed on an emergency basis, such as in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina. Other than this, Posse Comitatus was expressly designed to limit the powers of the US Federal Government in using the military for law enforcement. Posse Comitatus is one of the keys to democracy ensuring the US Prez cannot command an Army at will.

Have I missed a major emergency in the US? Has there been another Hurricane Katrina? If there is no emergency that would call for the military to intervene, then what on earth is a standing army doing in the US for the next 12 months?

Actually, I’m too hasty. It’s not just for 12 months. The Army Times goes on to say that after the BCT completes its mission “… expectations are that another, as yet unnamed, active-duty brigade will take over and that the mission will be a permanent one”.  See the penultimate word? Permanent!

After reading the article, I had to pick myself up off the floor. And then I rushed to do some research. How had Bush overturned Posse Comitatus? Seems on October 17, 2006, Bush swept away Posse Comitatus when he signed HR 5122 The John Warner Defense Authorization Act of 2006 (wasn’t this John Warner dude married to Elizabeth Taylor once?).

This Act allows the Prez to override State and local authorities to station troops anywhere within the borders of that grand old dame, the US of A. In other words, declare Martial Law. Jettison Democracy. Of course, Bush would argue that HR 5122 is a direct response to Hurricane Katrina, allowing more effective coordination in the wake of natural disasters. But if we read s333(A) of the Act it says:

“…restore public order and enforce the laws of the United States when, as a result of a natural disaster, epidemic, or other serious public health emergency, terrorist attack or incident…”

Ah, so here we have it. HR 5122 is not about coping with natural disasters, it’s about broadening Bush’s powers by sneaking in that old chestnut “terrorist attack or incident”.

I am literally counting the days, hours and seconds until Bush departs the White House. But as I blogged about in a previous post, will Prez Obama or Prez McCain willingly give up expanded powers, particularly one that allows a President to act as a military dictator (for if you read HR 5122, that is what it comes to – the death of Posse Comitatus as a safeguard of democracy and the power to mobilise US troops within the US to put down any State or local act of insurrection, violence, civil unrest, unlawful combination, conspiracy and so on).

Where’s the valium??!!  RIP US Democracy.

October 4, 2008 at 1:33 am 2 comments

The party could be over

I’ve said before that my parents were pretty thrifty. My mother was a great recycler. I remember one year, she gave me my birthday present ensconced in the wrapping paper I had used the previous year to wrap her gift! We had a good laugh. My father always said “if you can’t afford it, tough, go without” or “put it on lay-by”. So I grew up not having some things that other kids had; I did household chores to earn my pocket money (grand sum of $2.00 a week); I have always saved 10% or more of my salary. But like the rest of us in this rampant consumerist society, I’ve come to expect the “good life”.

I’ve been lucky to earn good money in my career and there was a time when “The Brands” were important to me. But the last couple of years – really since starting the ThinkingShift blog and researching into climate change, poverty issues and so on – I’ve returned to being frugal, although I admit it’s a struggle sometimes. Goods are not made to last. We are encouraged to throw away stuff and just go out and buy more. It’s an easy mindset to succumb to.

Our capitalist society has urged us to take on that huge mortgage so we can live happily ever after in our very own McMansion. I was chatting with a work colleague the other day who told me he has mortgage debts amounting to $AU 2.6 million. Granted he has two homes but a multi-million dollar debt strung around my neck would keep me wide awake at night, don’t know about you.

So we’ve all been partying away on other people’s money and whipping out the credit cards to buy the luxury brands or over-extending ourselves taking out that mortgage. Seems the party could be over and we just might have to return to the day when we all lived within our budget.

That grand old dame, the United States, is looking a little shaky right now and preparing for a visitor that a superpower might just not want to receive – the International Monetary Fund. The IMF are whizzing into Washington to conduct a stability assessment. They are not mistaking the US for Haiti or Pakistan. Nope, they are zooming in on an economy teetering on The Edge.  I am using capitals for The Edge because my mother always referred to any financial doom and gloom as possibly teetering on The Edge. She would then whisper the dreaded D word – Depression. She lived through The Depression, hence her frugality. So I’ve always had in the back of my mind: would I one day live through a depression or severe recession?

Seems we might all be wondering that now. I’m no economist but let’s have a look at what’s going on. What I think is really interesting (putting aside the collapse of major financial institutions) is the new role of the US Government wading into a space occupied by (let’s be honest) greedy bankers and a financial industry largely left alone to party it up and make obscene profits. It’s ending up as a quasi-nationalisation of the financial economy (not the real economy as that is growing quite well at 3.3% in the last quarter) with compulsory mergers or a Government takeover as in the case of AIG (with the Government having an 80% ownership stake).  Apparently, the Feds bailing out the likes of Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac and AIG is costing $US 700 billion (£382bn) with the total cost estimated to be more like $US1 trillion (£545bn). Add to this the cost of slugging it out in Iraq – $550 billion or $3 trillion if you ask Joseph Stiglitz.

And who will paying these staggering costs?  Mum and Dad US taxpayer of course. Bush has admitted that the bailing out exercise means putting “… a significant amount of taxpayer dollars on the line”. But he added: “I’m convinced that this bold approach will cost American families far less than the alternative. Further stress on our financial markets would cause massive job losses, devastate retirement accounts, further erode housing values, and dry up new loans for homes, cars and college tuitions”.

Well you know, possibly if Bush and his cronies had a strategy to begin with, we might not be facing this meltdown. Bailing out Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac but not bailing out Lehman Brothers, then bailing out AIG gives the impression they are on the back foot, desperately trying to figure out who to save and who to throw overboard. But possibly Lehman was different as they were the only one facing bankruptcy. I don’t think we can sling it totally at Bush though because what he has done is very faithfully execute the modern  Republican agenda, which is less regulation, less taxes and pro-corporate policies. Perhaps we need to trace this back to the Reagan Administration and his dismantling of what was left of the New Deal.

As Wall Street finds itself nationalised one firm at a time, leading thinkers are pondering where the credit crunch mess will lead to next – this I find very interesting, particularly from a lessons learnt POV. One leading thinker has this to say:

“The current crisis in consumer capitalism – which has precipitated a mortgage crisis, a housing crisis, a spending crisis and a savings crisis in the United States and the West – has many causes. But consumers themselves bear major responsibility for these multiple crises. Where once capitalism produced goods to meet real human needs, today it manufactures needs to sell all the goods it produces. With billions spent on marketing, consumers are easy marks. “Shopaholics” head for the mall with no goal in mind except to buy something, whatever.”

Yep, whilst we’re busy blaming banks for excessive lending decisions or the US Government for not boldly regulating the behaviour of financial institutions, we should take stock of our own role in this mess. The “I Want it Now” society sees us demanding iPhones, McMansions, designer handbags that are the GDP of a small country, gas guzzling cars and so on. The rampant consumer spending and borrowing was simply unsustainable. But if the pointy headed economic gurus didn’t see this coming, then I’m not sure that Average Consumer could have either and eased up their spending. And so now we face an uncertain economic future with the dreaded D word being more than whispered. I think that politicians have to be extremely careful right now: send messages of confidence and hope, and not mention the D word. Because what happened on Black Tuesday in 1929 could just as easily happen now – a rush on the financial institutions with people withdrawing money and investments.

Don’t know about you but I am following the ThinkingShift tips to surviving economic doom and gloom because the party is probably over and we’ll all have to learn to live within our means. And since I’m in a dark phase let me say: the new role of Government in taking over financial institutions is one step closer to the doom of the United States. The freedoms and civil liberties Americans espoused and once enjoyed have been eroded, happiness has gone down the tubes with mortgage foreclosures, the IMF will no doubt trim things such as social-service programmes. So in the name of resurrecting capitalism, at the other end, we will see America no longer the superpower it was. And let’s remember that profound economic crises have led to fascism or socialism.

Hopefully, I’ll be in a better frame of mind for the next post.

September 21, 2008 at 6:15 am 1 comment

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